Meniscus is a fibrous cartilage that absorbs shock and disperses the pressure as it travels through the knee. Excessive twisting and pressure can result in tearing of the meniscus.
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the most important stabilizing ligament in the knee. A tear in the ACL disrupts the knee’s stability. The ACL is located behind the kneecap in the central part of the knee. This injury often occurs when the knee hyper-extends with a twist. Cutting and twisting sports such as skiing, tennis or soccer see a high occurrence of this injury with relatively low force.
The medial collateral ligament (MCL) connects the inside end of the femur and the tibia. An MCL tear can be partial or complete. MCL tears commonly occur as a result of a fall or excessive strain on the ligament during sports such as soccer or skiing.
The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is the largest stabilizing ligament of the knee. The PCL is located behind the ACL behind the kneecap. Injury to the PCL commonly results form a direct impact to the anterior tibia while the knee is bent. This injury occurs in sports as well as in motor vehicle accidents.
Advanced arthritis occurs when the articular cartilage deteriorates. Osteoarthritis is the most common cause and results in the breakdown and loss of the smooth articular cartilage layers of your knee joint. Changes to the knee are progressive and typically worsen over time. As articular cartilage has no blood supply it has almost no healing properties. Impact, sheer stress from twisting and long term wear eventually erode the cartilage down to underlying bone resulting in increased pain.
Chondral lesions occur when articular cartilage is dislodged from the bone due totraumatic knee injury. The injury leaves a rim of healthy cartilage surrounding the lesion. Genetic defects called osteochondral defects (OCD’s) may also cause this condition. These lesion, wheter genetic or acute, may be repaired.
Articular cartilage located between the tibia and femur, begins to breakdown leading to cracks and deep fissures. Chronic wear results in progressive erosion of the deeper cartilage layers. High-impact injury, abnormal limb alignment and obesity can contribute to this condition.
The patella is found in a groove n the femur called the trochlea. Damage to the articular cartilage in this area is known as, PF Chondrosis. PF Chondrosis can occur due to trauma such as a direct impact to the front of the knee or overuse. The cartilage begins to break and tear resulting in a rough surface of the knee joint. Kneeling, squatting or knee extension during workouts can cause trauma. Obesity also contributes to this condition.