- video clip: Acromioclavicular (AC) Joint Arthritis
PLAY VIDEOThis condition, also called AC joint arthrosis, is a degeneration of the joint at the top of the shoulder where the acromion meets the clavicle.
- video clip: Anatomy of the Shoulder
PLAY VIDEOThe muscles and joints of the shoulder make it the most mobile joint in the human body.
- video clip: Biceps Tendinitis
PLAY VIDEOBiceps Tendinitis is an irritation or inflammation of the biceps tendon at the shoulder. The biceps tendon helps to stabilize the humerus and aids in activities that involve overhead motion such as tennis or throwing a ball.
- video clip: Biceps Tendon Rupture
PLAY VIDEOThis condition is a tear of one of the tendons that anchor the biceps muscle to the shoulder. The upper end of the biceps muscle is divided into two separate sections called the long head and the short head. The long head passes over the head of the humerus and attaches to the glenoid. The short head passes in front of the humerus and attaches to a bony protrusion, called the coracoid, on the shoulder blade.
- video clip: Calcific Tendinitis of the Shoulder (Degenerative Calcification)
PLAY VIDEOThis painful condition occurs when calcium deposits form in tendons of the rotator cuff. These tendons and surrounding tissues in the shoulder become inflamed. This condition typically affects adults.
- video clip: Frozen Shoulder (Adhesive Capsulitis)
PLAY VIDEOThis condition is a loss of motion or stiffness in the shoulder, usually accompanied by pain in the joint. Frozen shoulder is most common in people between the ages of 40 and 60, but can afflict anyone regardless of gender, arm preference or occupation.
- video clip: Glenoid Labrum Tears
PLAY VIDEOThis injury is a tear of the labrum, a thick band of cartilage that lines the rim of the glenoid (which is commonly called the shoulder socket). The labrum cushions the head of the humerus and holds it securely to the glenoid, stabilizing the joint.
- video clip: Hill-Sachs Lesion
PLAY VIDEOThis condition is a traumatic fracture of the humeral head that leaves an indentation in the bone. This changes the shape of the humeral head and can interfere with normal arm motion.
- video clip: Loose Shoulder (Multidirectional Instability)
PLAY VIDEOThis condition occurs when the tissue that forms a capsule around the shoulder joint stretches and can no longer effectively keep the ball of the humerus within the shoulder socket. Patients with loose shoulder may experience frequent shoulder dislocations.
- video clip: Rotator Cuff Injuries
PLAY VIDEOThe rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that cover the head of the humerus and hold it in the shoulder socket. When rotator cuff tendons become damaged, the shoulder can become stiff, sore or lose mobility. Injuries are often caused by direct damage, such as a traumatic fall or repetitive overhead motions. It can also develop because of indirect causes such as impingement or shoulder imbalance.
- video clip: Shoulder Dislocations
PLAY VIDEOThis condition occurs when the head of the upper arm bone, the humerus, slips out of the socket formed by the scapula at the shoulder joint. Because the shoulder is not as stable as other joints, this injury is common.
- video clip: Shoulder Impingement Syndrome
PLAY VIDEOThis condition occurs when the tendons of the rotator cuff, along with the subacromial bursa, become compressed against a bony scapula protrusion called the acromion. As these tissues continually rub against bone, they become irritated and inflamed.
- video clip: Shoulder Separation
PLAY VIDEOThis condition is an injury to the joint at the top of the shoulder where the acromion meets the clavicle, called the acromioclavicular (or AC) joint. The ligaments that hold these bones together are partially or completely torn, allowing the bones to separate.
- video clip: SLAP Tear (Superior Labrum from Anterior to Posterior Tear)
PLAY VIDEOThis condition is a tear of the labrum in the shoulder joint. The labrum is a ring of cartilage around the shoulder socket that stabilizes the head of the humerus. A SLAP tear occurs at the point where the biceps tendon attaches to the labrum.
- video clip: Winged Scapula
PLAY VIDEOThis condition occurs when the muscle that moves the shoulder forward weakens and fails to hold the scapula, or shoulder blade, close against the back of the rib cage. This condition results in the scapula sticking outwards and upwards, particularly during physical activities such as pushing or lifting weights.
- video clip: Arthroscopic Bankart Repair
PLAY VIDEOThis arthroscopic procedure is used to repair a detached labrum. The labrum is a thick band of cartilage attached to the glenoid. It lines the shoulder socket and helps keep the ball of the humerus in place.
- video clip: Arthroscopic Capsular Release
PLAY VIDEOThis minimally-invasive surgery is used to help relieve pain and loss of mobility in the shoulder from adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder). A radiofrequency (RF) probe is inserted into the shoulder. The probe uses RF waves to cut the tissue capsule that surrounds the shoulder joint, allowing the shoulder to move more freely.
- video clip: Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair
PLAY VIDEOThis surgical procedure is used to inspect and reattach torn tendons in the shoulder’s rotator cuff. The initial part of the surgery is performed arthroscopically through small tubes. In some cases, open surgery may be needed to repair large tears.
- video clip: Diagnostic Arthroscopy (Shoulder)
PLAY VIDEOThis outpatient procedure is a minimally-invasive surgical technique commonly used to identify problems in the shoulder joint. It is performed with the aid of a specialized camera called an arthroscope.
- video clip: Distal Clavicle Excision (Resection)
PLAY VIDEOThis minimally-invasive procedure helps to relieve pain and loss of motion in the shoulder from arthritis or impingement. During the procedure the end of the clavicle closest to the acromion in the shoulder is removed to allow pain-free movement of the joint.
- video clip: Glenohumeral Debridement
PLAY VIDEOThis minimally-invasive procedure is used to remove tissue in the shoulder joint that has been damaged from arthritis, overuse or injury. The physician uses a small camera, called an arthroscope, which is inserted into the shoulder joint.
- video clip: Shoulder Impingement Surgery
PLAY VIDEOThis outpatient procedure relieves pain by decompressing the tight space around the rotator tendon of the shoulder joint. The surgeon removes the bursa and trims back the acromion bone to allow for normal pain-free motion. In most cases, this procedure is performed arthroscopically.
- video clip: SLAP Repair
PLAY VIDEOThis arthroscopic procedure is performed to repair a tear of the biceps tendon at the point where it connects to the labrum, a ring of cartilage that surrounds the shoulder socket. A tear at this point is called a SLAP (Superior Labrum Anterior-Posterior) tear. SLAP repair is performed under general and regional anesthesia, and patients usually leave the hospital the same day.
- video clip: Anatomy of the Knee
PLAY VIDEOThe knee connects the upper leg bone to the lower leg bone. Cartilage covers the ends of both leg bones and the underside of the patella, or knee cap. When these surfaces are smooth, the joint glides easily and without pain.
- video clip: Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries in Women
PLAY VIDEOThe ACL is an elastic band of tissue in the knee that helps hold the joint together. An ACL tear is a common injury that can occur when the knee is twisted or hyperextended. For reasons that are not fully understood, ACL tears are much more common in women than in men.
- video clip: Avascular Necrosis (AVN) of the Knee
PLAY VIDEOThis condition occurs when a bone’s normal blood supply is disrupted. The affected bone cells die, and the dead bone weakens and may begin to fracture and collapse, leading to arthritis. It most commonly affects women over the age of 60.
- video clip: Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)
PLAY VIDEOThis chronic condition, also known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy, is an unexplained feeling of pain and discomfort that most commonly affects an arm, leg, hand or foot. Often, it begins in the hand or foot and then spreads to affect the entire limb.
- video clip: Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)
PLAY VIDEOThis condition is a blood clot that forms in a vein deep inside the body, most commonly in the lower leg or thigh. This type of clot is dangerous, because it can travel through the bloodstream and into one of the pulmonary arteries that supply blood to the lungs. A blockage of a pulmonary artery is a very serious condition called a pulmonary embolism, which can be fatal.
- video clip: Goosefoot (Pes Anserine) Bursitis of the Knee
PLAY VIDEOThis condition is an inflammation of the pes anserine bursa, a fluid-filled sac between the tibia and the tendons of the hamstring muscle on the inner side of the knee. It can cause pain and restrict motion of the knee.
- video clip: Iliotibial Band Syndrome (ITBS)
PLAY VIDEOThis condition is a painful inflammation of the iliotibial band, a thick, tendon-like portion of a muscle that travels from the hip down the outer side of the thigh to the knee. ITBS results in pain, aggravated by activity, that is usually felt on the outer side of the knee.
- video clip: Kneecap (Prepatellar) Bursitis
PLAY VIDEOThis condition is an inflammation of the prepatellar bursa, a fluid-filled sac that lies on the front of the kneecap. This condition causes pain and swelling at the front of the knee. The bursa may also become infected.
- video clip: Meniscus Tears
PLAY VIDEOThe meniscus is comprised of two c-shaped wedges of cartilage that cushion and stabilize the knee joint. A torn meniscus can cause pain and limited mobility in the knee.
- video clip: Osgood-Schlatter Disease
PLAY VIDEOThis overuse injury is an inflammation that occurs at the point where the patellar tendon attaches to the tibia. It most commonly affects adolescents. One or both knees may be affected.
- video clip: Osteoarthritis of the Knee
PLAY VIDEOOsteoarthritis, also called degenerative arthritis, is a gradual breakdown of cartilage in the joints. Cartilage is a tough, flexible connective tissue that protects the ends of bones in the joints. Osteoarthritis is common in the knees because the knees bear the weight of the body. Osteoarthritis of the knee can severely impact a person’s lifestyle.
- video clip: Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee
PLAY VIDEOThis condition occurs when a portion of bone or its overlying articular cartilage is cut off from the blood supply, creating a “dead” area of bone and cartilage. Osteochondritis dissecans of the knee usually affects the condyle of the femur, and may occur after injury or trauma to the knee, or from repeated stress of competitive sports.
- video clip: Patellar Tendonitis (Jumpers Knee)
PLAY VIDEOThis condition is an inflammation of the tendon that connects the patella (the kneecap) to the tibia in the knee joint. This tendon is part of the structure of muscles and tendons in the knee that allows the knee to straighten from being bent.
- video clip: Patellar Tracking Disorder
PLAY VIDEOThe patella (kneecap) is held in place by the quadriceps and patellar tendons. Ligaments on either side also help stabilize the patella. Patellar tracking disorder is a painful condition caused by a problem with the bones, muscles or ligaments around the patella.
- video clip: Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (Runners Knee)
PLAY VIDEOThis condition is an irritation of the cartilage on the back of the patella (the kneecap) that causes pain in one or both knees.
- video clip: Torn Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)
PLAY VIDEOThis condition occurs when the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), the band of tissue that connects the femur to the tibia inside the knee joint, becomes torn or worn away, causing pain and instability of the knee.
- video clip: ACL ReconstructionArthroscopic Chondroplasty
PLAY VIDEOThis outpatient procedure is used to repair a small area of damaged cartilage in the knee. The damaged tissue is removed, allowing healthy cartilage to grow in its place. It is performed through small incisions on the sides of the knee with the aid of a small video camera called an arthroscope.
- video clip: Cartilage Repair
PLAY VIDEOThis technique is designed to treat and repair cartilage defects by regenerating the patient’s own hyaline cartilage, (a weight-bearing cartilage that lines the surface of the knee joint).
- video clip: Cartilage Repair (Biologic Patch with Chondrocyte Transplantation)
PLAY VIDEOThis technique is designed to treat and repair cartilage defects by regenerating the patient’s own cartilage cells.
- video clip: Joint Arthroscopy
PLAY VIDEOArthroscopic surgery is used to diagnose and treat many joint problems. This significant advance in joint care allows for a rapid return to improved activity. Most commonly used in knees, shoulders and ankles, the arthroscope can also be used for the spine, hips, wrists, and elbows. This animation shows the knee joint.
- video clip: Lateral Release and Medial Imbrication
PLAY VIDEOhis procedure is designed to loosen or tighten ligaments on either side of the patella (kneecap) to improve the movement of the patella in patients suffering from patellar tracking disorder. This procedure is usually performed arthroscopically through one or two small incisions near the patella.
- video clip: Loose Body Removal (Knee)
PLAY VIDEOThis minimally-invasive outpatient procedure, performed under local anesthetic, removes bits of bone, cartilage or other tissue that have broken free and are floating within the knee joint.
- video clip: Meniscus Repair
PLAY VIDEOThe meniscus is a band of cartilage in the knee that acts as a shock absorber and provides stability to the knee joint. The meniscus helps protect the articular cartilage, the smooth covering on the ends of the femur and tibia. If a meniscus tears, it can often be repaired through arthroscopic surgery.
- video clip: Meniscus Transplant
PLAY VIDEOThe meniscus is comprised of two c-shaped wedges of cartilage that cushion and stabilize the knee joint. This outpatient arthroscopic procedure replaces lost or severely damaged meniscal cartilage with tissue taken from a donor knee. The surgery lasts about one to three hours and is performed under general anesthetic.
- video clip: Microfracture Drilling Procedure for Isolated Chondral Defect
PLAY VIDEOThis minimally-invasive procedure repairs damaged cartilage in the knee joint. Small holes are drilled into the bone at the base of the damaged area to stimulate the growth of healthy “scar” cartilage.
- video clip: OATS Cartilage Repair Surgery
PLAY VIDEOThis procedure replaces areas of damaged cartilage with grafts of the patient’s own healthy hyaline cartilage. The procedure, also known as mosaicplasty, is performed using small instruments through incisions on the sides of the knee. The surgeon uses a small video camera called an arthroscope to see inside the joint and guide the instruments.
- video clip: Partial Meniscectomy
PLAY VIDEOThis minimally-invasive outpatient procedure is designed to remove the damaged portion of the meniscus, a layer of cartilage on top of the tibia that cushions and stabilizes the knee joint. The procedure may be performed with local or regional anesthetic.
- video clip: Patellofemoral Replacement
PLAY VIDEOThis surgical procedure removes portions of damaged cartilage on the femur in the knee joint that have been rubbing against the underside of the patella, causing pain and loss of mobility. This cartilage is then replaced with a specially-designed implant.
- video clip: Tibial Osteotomy with Open Wedge
PLAY VIDEOThis surgical procedure is used in cases where osteoarthritis has affected only one side of the knee joint. The tibia is cut and realigned so that pressure is shifted from the damaged side of the knee joint to the healthier side.
- video clip: Tibial Tubercle Osteotomy
PLAY VIDEOThis procedure, also called bone realignment, is designed to improve the movement of the patella (the kneecap) to correct patellar tracking disorder. The procedure usually requires hospitalization and general anesthesia.
- video clip: Uni Knee Resurfacing (Wright Onlay)
PLAY VIDEOUnlike total knee replacement surgery, this less-invasive procedure replaces only the damaged or arthritic parts of the knee.